The town of Alexandria was the renowned capital of the Ptolemies, with several monuments. Also, it was along these shores that history took a tragic turn at the time of Cleopatra, Octabian, Mark Antony and Julius Caesar. Also, Alexandria was one city thriving during the Ptolemiac and Roman periods, however, the city had replaced Memphis as the capital of Egypt. With its gridded street plan, however it was essentially a Greek rather than Egyptian , with a substantial population of Jews and Greeks.
In last time the major monuments of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods were the Sarapeum, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis, which may have housed part of the library collection, the Caesarium (founded by Cleopatra in honour of Mark Anthony), and Kom es-Shawqafa, a labyrinth of rock cut tombs dating to the first 2 centuries AD.
Alexandria is the second-largest town in Egypt. Alexandria was a Greco-Roman town at the western end of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great. In ancient times, the town was known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World) and the Library of Alexandria (the largest library in the ancient world).
In the following centuries Alexandria declined and in the 19th century it became a small fishing village. In the 20th century Alexandria recovered part of its lost splendor. At the beginning of the 21st century Alexandria has almost 5 million inhabitants and it is attracting several tourists thanks to its long history, its nice beaches and the new works under construction. The most important of these works is the new library.
Actually, Alexadnria is linked to Cairo by 2 major highways and a railroad line. It's one of the most notable summer resorts in the Middle East, for, in addition to its temperate winters, its beaches, with white sands and magnificent scenery, stretch for 140 km along the Mediterranean Sea, from Abu Qir, in the east to Al-Alamein and Sidi Abdul Rahman, in the west.
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