RIO DE JANEIRO, in english "River of January"; is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. The city was the capital of Brazil (1763–1960) and of the Portuguese Empire (1808–1821). Commonly known as just Rio, the city is also nicknamed A Cidade Maravilhosa - "The Marvelous City".
It is famous for its spectacular natural setting, its Carnival celebrations, samba and other music, hotel-lined tourist beaches, such as Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon and pavements decorated with black and cream swirl pattern mosaics. Some of the most famous local landmarks in addition to the beaches include the giant statue of Jesus, known as Christ the Redeemer "Cristo Redentor" atop Corcovado mountain; Sugarloaf mountain "Pão de Açúcar" with its cable car; the Sambódromo, a giant permanent parade stand used during Carnival; and Maracanã stadium, the world's largest. Rio also boasts the world's largest forest inside an urban area, called Floresta da Tijuca, or "Tijuca Forest".
Rio de Janeiro is located at 22 degrees, 54 minutes south latitude, 43 degrees 14 minutes west longitude (22°54'S 43°14'W). The population of the City of Rio de Janeiro is about 6,094,183 (2005 IBGE estimate), occupying an area of 1,182.3 square kilometres (456.5 sq mi). The larger metropolitan area population is estimated at 11-12 million. It is Brazil's second-largest city after São Paulo and was the country's capital until 1960, when Brasília took its place. Residents of the city are known as Cariocas. The city's current mayor (2006) is Cesar Maia. The official song of Rio is "Cidade Maravilhosa."
Rio de Janeiro is an awe-inspiring city of contrasts. Impossibly steep granite mountains jut out of the ocean between glorious stretches of golden sand, impeccable colonial buildings nestle in between modern glass skyscrapers and verdant forests tumble down hillsides into densely populated residential areas. It is a city high on life, a city of beach worship, football, samba and Carnival. And high above all this fun and frivolity stands Rio's ever-present, iconic landmark – the statue of Christ the Redeemer.
The continuing strength of foreign currencies against the Brazilian Real and the national football team's success in the 2002 World Cup have both helped to make Brazil, and Rio in particular, an increasingly popular and affordable year-round destination. And as the host of the forthcoming Pan American Games in 2007, the city is undergoing considerable regeneration and many new hotels are either built or being built. As well as the city's well-known landmarks of Corcovado and Sugar Loaf mountains, Rio boasts a wealth of attractions and activities, plus great food, music and entertainment – enough to keep a visitor busy for any length of stay.
Situated in southeast Brazil, on the natural port of the Baía de Guanabara (Guanabara Bay), Rio is a city of over 10 million people squeezed between the ocean and the mountains. The cidade maravilhosa (marvellous city) is a melting pot of cultures and peoples in varying degrees of wealth or poverty. In Rio, the rich and poor live together and the exclusive areas stand in stark contrast and close proximity to the slum areas or favelas. But no matter what their background or economic standing, the Cariocas (as the citizens of Rio are known) are characterised by a passion and enthusiasm for life, which is on full show during Rio's famous annual Carnival.
Central to the Carioca lifestyle is the beach. From dawn until dusk and even after dark, the residents of Rio can be found enjoying the long stretches of sandy coastline with which the city is blessed. The beach is not merely a place to absorb the sun's rays but also an important venue for sports, socialising and even business. It is a people-watcher's paradise – clothing is minimal and bodies are bronzed and beautiful. The famous Copacabana and Ipanema beaches are magnets for Brazilians and tourists alike.
It has taken 500 years for Rio to transform itself into one of the world's greatest cities. On 1 January 1502, Portuguese explorers sailed into Guanabara Bay and named it Rio de Janeiro (River of January), under the mistaken impression that it was an enormous river mouth. The French attempted to gain control of the bay in 1555 but were finally evicted by the Portuguese in 1567.
The Portuguese colony was based on sugar cane and agricultural products throughout the 17th century, until the discovery of gold in the nearby Minas Gerais region led to the city's emergence as a control, export and taxation centre. Black slaves formed the majority of the population in these early days of trading and the African influence is still present in the city's culture. The capital of colonial Brazil was moved from Bahia (now Salvador) in 1763 to Rio de Janeiro and the city began to flourish, especially when coffee became the predominant export in the 19th century. After the Portuguese monarchy was exiled from Portugal, when Napoleon conquered Lisbon, Rio became their home and eventually the capital of an independent Brazilian Empire. Finally, Brazil became a Republic in 1889; Rio de Janeiro remained its capital until 1960, when the Federal government was transferred to Brasilia.
Rio has continued to grow and has become a popular destination not only for tourists but also for migrants from other parts of the country. Despite its development, the city still has more than its fair share of social problems. Strong divisions exist between the ‘haves' and the ‘have-nots'. Attempts have been made to curtail crime, although both residents and tourists should remain alert to petty thieves.
Rio's best season is undoubtedly the summer months, between December and February, culminating with Carnival. Temperatures can rise to around 40ºC (104ºF) or more, which is ideal weather if tourists do as the Brazilians do and visit the beaches rather than rush around.